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Thursday, 2 July 2020

Mapping 6 Years of BJP Government in India - Highlights

Recently,The BJP marked it's 6th year in power. Here's a quick recap on policies, laws, schemes and controversies.

Correction: Under "Environment and Public Health" it is 4.50 lakh toilets, not 450 lakh.

Clarification: The Narendra Modi government has not waived-off any loan. 'Write off' doesn't stop recovery or action against defaults. (The decision to not include CAA, the migrant crisis & abrogation of Article 370 in this post was deliberate; as they require far more nuance than a paragraph affords.)



Mapping 6 Years of BJP Government in India - Highlights
Mapping 6 Years of BJP Government in India - Highlights


ECONOMY AND BANKING


Unemployment is at an all time high, at 27.11%

In 2017-18, the rate was 6.1% the highest in 45 Years

GDP Growth figures stood at an 11 year low at 4.2% before the covid-19 crisis

The Central Government came to power in 2014 with the promise that the dollar rate would equal ₹ 40. However as 30th May $1=₹75.52

According to SBI, Goldman Sachs, and others, the actual fiscal cost of the 20 lakh crore Covid stimulus package, range from 0.75 to 1.30% of the GDP as opposed to the 10% of GDP figure claimed by the government.

The government wrote off loans worth ₹68,607 crores for the likes of Mehul Choksi, Vijay Mallya, Nirav Modi Etc.

From 2014 onward, the Government witnessed 32,868 Bank frauds involving public money to the tune of ₹2,70,513 crores

(Sources: Financial Express, The Wire, The Week, CMIE, SBI, Goldman Sachs.)

DISSENT AND TRANSPARENCY

0 Press Conferences have been held by the PM in the past 6 years

Reporters Sans Frontieres has called the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs as one of the world's worst "Digital predators". In 2019, J&K had 121 internet shutdowns.

India dropped 2 places in the World Press Freedom Index in 2020. From 2014-19, there have been 198 Serious attacks on Journalists. (Getting Away with Murder report)

Students and activists have consistently been arrested under the draconian UAPA and Sedition laws

INCOME INEQUALITY

42.5% of the country's wealth is owned by the richest 1% of Indians (Oxfam)

2.8% of the wealth is owned by the bottom 50% of the the population (Oxfam)

Income inequality currently the highest in 73 Years (Credit Suisse)

In 2017-18 the rate of rural poverty rose 30% (Live Mint)

The ruling party, BJP's income has risen by 248% from ₹970 crore in 2014-15 to ₹2410 crore in 2019-20 (TIO)

14.2% was the rate of inflammation in food prices in December 2019, the highest rise since 2013 (Trading economics)

WOMENS' SAFETY

In 2016, of the 3.38 lakh cases of crime against women, rape made up 11.5%.
Only 1 in 4 of these cases ended in a conviction. (TOI)

Between 2001-2017, the number of rapes reported increased by 103% (India Today)

According to the data taken from different high courts, since March 2018, the pendency of rape cases has increased by more than 46% (The Wire)

The Nirbhaya Fund, created after the December 2012 gang-rape case lies virtually unused with only 20% of the funds being utilised. (The Hindu)

ENVIRONMENT & PUBLIC HEALTH

21 of the 30 most polluted cities in the world are in India. (CNN)

In March 2019 the Central Government approved mining in 1,70,000 hectares of forest In Chhattisgarh.(Hindustan Times)

In India has become the world's 4th worst country in environmental health.(DNA)

India Ranked the 5th in Global Climate Risk in 2018. (Hindustan Times)

In Madhya Pradesh, 450 lakh Swachh Toilets along with 540 crores supposedly used to build them are non-existent although on paper they exist. (TOI)

India has slipped to the rank of 102 out of 117 in the global hunger index in 2020. (Global Hunger Index Report)

MISCELLANEOUS SCHEMES

As of January 2020, the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana that had targeted to impart skill training to one crore youth trained around 73 lakh people but failed to achieve key objectives such as high rates of job placement.

Despite implementation of the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana 52% of respondents in the All India Rural Financial Inclusion Survey, 2016-17, said they do not use their accounts. Only 11% respondents had "good" financial literacy.

Comptroller and Auditor General found oddities in the audit report of the Pradhan Mantri Ujjala Yojana. Cylinders were diverted for commercial use. Extremely high usage in some cases whereas no refills in some cases. Cylinders were also issued to minors, and unintended beneficiaries. Discrepancies were found in the number of gas cylinders distributed to families compared to average usage.

Read Also:

India Banned Tik Tok and 58 Other China App, Know Alternative to these Apps

Is Boycotting Chinese Goods Feasible? CAN INDIA BOYCOTT CHINESE IMPORTS?

Corona Virus( COVID-19) Top Vaccine Candidates

ON THE BRIGHT SIDE...

The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2020 which proposed extension of the upper limit for abortions to 24 weeks from 20 weeks was approved. (Live Mint)

Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act amended to provide 5 year punishment for persons who use a child for pornographic purposes. (AIR)

India has become the 4th space superpower after China, Russia, and the US. (Times Now)

Oxy Biodegradable sanitary napkins made available for ₹1. (Live Mint)

Jan Ausadhi Kendras which provide generic drugs at affordable prices increased to 6318 in number.(Jagran)

India's rank on the Ease of Doing Business Ranking advanced to the 63rd position. Manufacturing
companies might shift from China to India.(Quint)

Road construction speeds up. Target for 2020-21 is 32% according to the MORTH. China to India. (The Quint)

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Tuesday, 30 June 2020

India Banned Tik Tok and 58 Other China App, Know Alternative to these Apps

India Banned Tik Tok and 58 Other China App, Know Alternative to these Apps

India Banned TikTok and 58 Other apps which were of china origin. This is merely in response to allegations of misuse of data, and the transfer of said data outside the country. Well sharing data outside is something which harms the sovereignty and integrity of India

Ravi Shankar Prasad, Law & Justice, Communications, Electronics & Information Technology Minister Of India said that "For safety Security, defense, sovereignty and integrity of India and to protect the data and privacy of India, the government have banned 59 mobile apps".

Alternative To banned Apps

LIST OF APPS BANNED:

Tik Tok
UC Browser
Shareit
Clash Of Kings
Likee
Shein
Kwai
YouCam Makeup
Helo
Baidu Map
Du Battery Saver
Mi community
CM Browsers
ROMWE
APUS Browser
Virus Cleaner
Club Factory
WeChat
Beauty PLus
Newsdog
UC News
Xender
Es File Explorer
QQ Music
QQ Mail
QQ Newsfeed
Bigo Live
Parallel Space
Mail Master
SelfieCity
Mi Video Call - Xiaomi
WeSync
Wibo
Viva Video - QU Video Inc.
Meitu
Vigo Video
New Video Status
DU Recorder
Vault - Hide
Cache Cleaner DU App Studio
DU cleaner
DU browser
Hago Play with New friends
CamScanner
Sweet Selfie
Wonder camera
Photo Wonder
DU privacy
We Meet
Clean Master - Cheetah Mobile
Baidu translate
U Video
QQ International
QQ Security Center
QQ Launcher
CVMate
V Fly Status Video
Mobile Legends
QQ Player

tiktok ban


A RISK TO INDIA'S SECURITY

The move, however, comes after the worst clashes in decades between the two nations , leading many to speculate it as a response to Chinese aggression at the LAC.

Moreover, the frequently used Section 69A of the IT Act, under which this was done, is not normally accompanied with announcement and is done in secret.

The announcement and the timing, along with the past precedent of such actions, may strongly suggest that it is politically motivated retaliation against China.

SOURCE OF HARM TO INDIA AND THE COMPANIES

This move is bound to cause harm - the question, however, is who will be to carry the burden; for now, it looks like it would be the app developers and Indian consumers.

Tik Tok, for instance, would lose a 120 million Indian consumers, but countless users new to the internet who use the platform to either earn or support their businesses would also lose an invaluable platform do so.

BACK TO THE PRE-LIBERALISATION ERA?

The majority of the negative consequences would be borne by consumers and developers, with the Chinese government or China's GDP being left relatively unscathed.

Retalliation from their front is likely, but because of the motivation behind said decision; not because their economy is "hurt".

This, then, may truly be a political message and a push to the 'Aatmanirbhar Bharat' campaign as Indian counterparts of the applications get handed a comparatively competition-free industry.

ALTERNATIVES FOR INDIAN USERS

Despite the larger implications, a major source of concern for the average user is having to find suitable alternatives; fortunately, these exist.

Tik Tok's Indian counterparts Chingari and Mitron are freely available on the Google Play Store and have been gaining traction; the former has 2.5 mn downloads.

Users of UC Browser and DU Browser could switch to browsers such as Safari and Google Chrome; for an Indian alterenative, the JioBrowser has a layout similar to UC.

Helo, Bigo Live, Vigo Video, VMate, Kwai

Alternative: Mitron and Chingari

UC Browser, DU Browser, Cm Browser and APUS Browser

Alternative: Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox. Also Jio Browser.

YouCAm Makeup, BeautyPlus and Photo Wonder

Alternative: B16 - Beauty & Filter Camera

SHAREit and Xender

Alternative: Super Beam. Can also use Wifi Direct, NFC or QR codes for transfering and sharing large files.

360 Security

Alternative: Bitfender Mobile security and Antivirus

AppLock

Alternative: The Norton App

CamScanner

Alternative: Adobe Scan, PDF scanner with OCR

ES File Explorer

Alternative: Files by Google: Clean Up space on your phone" and File Commande File Manager & Free Cloud.

Shein

Alternative: Myntra

Mi Video Call

Alternative: WhatsApp


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Sunday, 28 June 2020

Is Boycotting Chinese Goods Feasible? CAN INDIA BOYCOTT CHINESE IMPORTS?

Is Boycotting Chinese Goods Feasible?  

The Indo-China tensions at the Line of Actual Control has flared up the 'Boycott China' movement in India, with several influential Indians supporting the movement.

 As PM Modi urged the nation to foster self-reliance, the government is taking concrete measures such as providing a 'Made in India' filter in the Government E-Marketplace. 

Several Indian industries are heavily reliant on Chinese imports to meet the consumer demand.

 In addition, Indian exports to China constitute a major chunk of its total exports.

 Hence, any move to boycott Chinese goods will result in trade retaliation by China, which will impact India's economy more than China's. 

Will this movement of boycotting a nation fail like many others in the past have?

Can India Boycott Chinese Imports?

 CAN INDIA BOYCOTT CHINESE IMPORTS?  

With rising anti-China sentiment, there have been calls to 'boycott' China but this may not be a feasible option.

 WR .ESELF-RELIANT INDIA AND A BOYCOTT 

• Last month, PM Modi addressed the nation, strongly supporting and requesting the people to foster self-sufficiency - to rely on local goods and services.

 • While Indo-China tensions flared at the LAC, influential Indians promoted the movement on social media, garnering over 20 lakh views in 2 days.

  • Thus, began a movement toward 'boycotting' Chinese goods;  from 2015-19 India's imports amounted to $ 70.3 bn while exports to China were just $ 16.7 bn.

 INDIA'S RELIANCE ON CHINA 

• While China exports only 2% of its total exports to India, India exports roughly 6% of its total to China.

• 60% of India's electronic demands, 30% automobile components and 90% of toys, among of other major industries, come from China

. • China has invested, as FDI, over $1.2 Billion in India since 2015; they have also invested over $4 billion into Indian tech start-ups.

 • 90% of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients for Indian antibiotics come from China


Chinese Investment into Start-Ups

Companies based in China have significant contributions into major Indian start-Ups, therefore they hold a direct stake in Indian companies and benefit through them too.

Betting on Unicorns

Chinese firms have invested in at least 18 Indian start-ups which are or were Unicorns.

Start Up
Investors
Amount($mn)**
Zomato
Alibaba
500
Swiggy
Tencent, HillHouse, etc.
500
Ola
Tancent, Steadview, etc.
500
Paytm And Paytm Mall
Alibaba
500
Flipkart
SteadView, Tencent
300
BigBasket
Alibaba, TR Capital
250
Dream11
Steadview, Tencent
150
Oyo
Didi Chixing
100
Udaan
Tencent
100
Bygus
Tencent
50
Delhivery
Fosun
25
PolicyBazaar
Staedview
NA
** Amount raised from Chinese investors; not all deal values are disclosed.

 ATTEMPTS TO BOYCOTT GOODS IN THE PAST 

• In 1930, China boycotted all Japanese goods as protest against Japanese colonization. 

• France refused to send troops to Iraq post 9/11 in response to which the US attempted to boycott French goods.

 • Arab nations have boycotted American goods over the years due to their conflicting stance about Palestine.

 • The US-China trade war is a recent situation when such a limitation has caused harm.


OUTCOMES OF SUCH MOVEMENTS 

• None of these movements to boycott a nation and its produce have been fruitful globalization, and the deep integration of supply as a result of chains.  

• Every nation is intricately reliant on multiple other nations;  hence, it is no surprise that the US-China trade war has reduced both countries' GDP growth by nearly 1 percentage point. 

 • There are consequences to other countries too, as the same trade war has reduced global GDP growth by 0.7 percentage points.

THE CONUNDRUM WITH CHINESE GOODS 

• While India aspires to be self-reliant, it also aims to contribute and be a part of global supply chains;  2 goals which could possibly be contradictory. 

• Nations operate on quid-pro-quo trade agreements;  if India manages to steer away from Chinese goods, it could trigger retaliation and a potential trade war.

  • Indian consumers 'buy Chinese' because of their high quality-low cost nature;  buying an 'inferior' product out of patriotism could indeed foster inefficiency and hinder the goal of being part of global supply chains.

 GOVERNMENT ACTION TOWARD THE STEP 

• In an implicit move to curb Chinese imports, the government asked sellers to mention the 'Country of Origin' of goods and services listed on the Government E-Marketplace (GeM).

 • A 'Make in India' filter will be provided for products that comprise of at least 50% local content.

 • A similar mechanism in private platforms is being suggested, aiding consumers in not 'buying Chinese'.

 • The Government might also hike import duties and strengthen trade barriers on 300 products.

READ ALSO:




NOT A FEASIBLE COURSE OF ACTION PRODUCT

 • While import substitution seems like a good idea, it often doesn't maximize welfare;  goods produced in India will likely be more expensive and obsolete.

 • Economically irrational protections' to Indian industry,   Indian immune to major international a competitor, could prevent the advancement of said industry.

 • Finally, India's immense reliance on Chinese goods makes a boycott unfeasible;  it would be years before the vacuum could be filled an immediate unplanned boycott will cause far more harm than good.

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Saturday, 27 June 2020

INDIA'S NEW PROPOSAL MAY WORSEN THE CLIMATE CRISIS

 INDIA'S NEW PROPOSAL MAY WORSEN THE CLIMATE CRISIS

India's new potential environmental legislation, highlighted in The Draft EIA Notification 2020 is being seen by environmentalists as a desperate attempt to dilute the existing environmental EIA regulations who have called it an "undemocratic evasion of environmental responsibility." 

 The Ministry of Environment is open to public comments on this draft till June 30, 2020 - a date that is approaching fast.  

In a statement, the ministry said that "any person interested in making any objections or suggestions on the proposal may forward the same in writing to the e-mail address:" eia2020-moefcc@gov.in ".

Environment


 LAWS TO HELP DODGE CLEARANCE

 • India's Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MOEFCC) recently proposed a Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) notification 2020, seeking notification.  draft to replace the current 2006

• EIA is an important process for evaluating the potential environmental impact of a proposed project via a public-based tool to influence project approval.

 • The newest draft which allows delayed approvals, softens regulations, and reduces monitoring - is being hailed as fundamentally detrimental to the environment.


 EIA TO ALLOWTA POST-FACTO APPROVAL

 • The primary issue with the new ElA is that it awards 'post-facto approvals,' implying that clearance can be granted after the project has already started without permissions. 

 • Such delayed consent allows environmental damages to be waived off as mere 'violations', and the fines imposed thereafter are unable to reverse the damage caused or effectively stop projects.  

• Post-facto approvals violate principle 'of environmental sustainability which aims to' prioritize preventing ecological damage 'over punishing it. 


INCREASED ROOM FOR NON-COMPLIANCE 

• Earlier, project proponents were required to submit a report every six months to show that they were working within granted permissions;  EIA 2020 reduces this to once a year.  

• An increased reporting period allows time for irreversible environmental, social or health consequences;  for example, a mining project which contaminates water bodies would be noticed too late. 

 • Furthermore, the draft increases the period for which clearance is granted, classifying mining projects to be 'in construction phase' for 50 instead of 30 years.


 CRUCIAL DEFINITIONS REVISED 

• The draft introduces the term 'strategic projects';  no public information will be available regarding such projects. 

 • Further, the draft notification states that new construction projects to the extent of 1,50,000 m2(instead of the existing 20,000 m2) will not require 'detailed scrutiny' by experts or public consultation.

  • While previously non-maintenance dredging - the removal of deposits, widening and deepening of rivers and sea beds - was not allowed, it has now been permitted for waterway construction.
INTERPLAY WITH POLITICS

 • The government seeks to bolster political control by molding economic projects to political ends. 

• The draft has done away with the requirement of state governments to have a concrete role in setting up expert committees;  this further enhances the clout of the central government over regulatory authorities.  

• State governments have to send in nominations for committee members, which too, the central government has the option of rejecting.


 PUBLIC CONSULTATION AMIDST COVID-19 

• The government made the draft publicly available on March 23 right before the COVID-19 lockdown;  under the Environmental Protection Act, the public has a 'notice period' of 60 days to send in objections. 

 • Environmental organizations and members of parliament argued that the lockdown restricted the consultation process of the public and stakeholders, many of whom don't have internet access.  

• After a widespread outcry, the MOEFCC announced that the notice period has been extended till June 30, 2020.

A CALL TO SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT

 • Environmentalists are encouraging the public to send suggestions and objections to the draft notification via email at eia2020-moefcc@gov.in;  the government is obligated to consider these. 

 • Several pre-drafted emails - which highlight the clauses that decrease public influence, legitimize violations, and give discretionary powers to authorities - are being circulated on the internet.  Experts suggest that 'decreasing the delay of granting environmental clearance' is a better method to improve business, as opposed to drafting laws which prioritize development over sustainability.

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Friday, 26 June 2020

LOCKDOWN OF RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACIES AMID COVID-19

LOCKDOWN OF RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACIES AMID COVID-19 

Governments world over are using the pandemic as a veil to bring about authoritarian laws and grasp power.

Governments Using the Pandemic to Amass Power While the pandemic has hamstrung the world, the governments of several nations have taken matter into their own hands and ramped up surveillance.  Contrary to the dogma, "With Great Power comes Great Responsibility", the governments of India, Brazil, China, Hungary and Egypt among others have capitalized on these tumultuous times to amass power and silence their harsh critics.  

Transparency in reporting the true Covid case count has been done away with in several nations, while funds allocated for reparation of lives and livelihoods are being seldom used for the same.  

The externalities of this power play have longer lasting consequences, both intended and unintended.  The pandemic will eradicate inevitably, but the overriding power amassed by the governments, under the guise of sovereignty will most likely not.

LockDown Rights

 RISE OF RESTRICTIONS DUE TO COVID-19 

• Due to COVID-19, several countries resorted to imposing restrictions on public movement and gathering.

• Several others also went into lockdowns at different levels (nationwide, statewide, citywide) in order to contain the novel coronavirus. 

• While these measures were essential, there have been instances of countries using the pandemic as a pretext to curb civil liberties and amass more power.

LOCKDOWN OF CRITICISM IN INDIA 

• The "world's largest lockdown" was accompanied with a lack of transparency to donations such as those of the PM-CARES fund. 

 • Instances of police brutality were reported across the country, to 'enforce' lockdown rules, even against those out for 'essential' purposes. 

 • Criticism of the government's response was deemed punishable by gag orders in some states;  even for doctors calling out inadequate equipment supplies. 

 • Other critics, against the CAA-NRC, have also been silenced on social media;  punished under the UAPA and declared a 'threat' to the country.

AL-SISI'S AUTHORITARIANISM IN EGYPT 

• President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi brought about amendments 'to contain the virus' that work towards making Egypt a 'personalist dictatorship'.  

• He did away with his need to leave office in 2022, enabling him to remain in power till 2034;  he also gets direct control over judicial appointments and the judiciary's budget, weakening its independence. 

 • Of the 18 amendments passed, just 5 are related to public health - they work to expand the government's power and enable force to silence critics and the media.

INDEFINITE EMERGENCY POWERS IN HUNGARY

 • The Hungarian parliament passed a granting Prime Minister Viktor Orbán emergency powers for an indefinite time.  measure

• Another bill was passed, sentencing spreading 'misinformation that hinders the government response to the pandemic' to 5 years of prison;  fear of media censorship and loss of government accountability accompany the bill.  

• Rights groups and critics state that while the coronavirus brings extraordinary circumstances, a system of checks and balances is indispensable.


BRAZIL'S BOLSONARO REMOVES COVID-19 DATA 

• President Jair Bolsonaro opposed lockdowns and called the virus a 'little flu', which has made Brazil the country with the second-highest case count in the world. 

• As the virus 'kills a Brazilian per minute' Bolsonaro has sought to hide data - he stopped the reporting of a 'total' case count, only showing the figures for the previous 24 hours.  

• The Health Ministry website was wiped of its data in an attempt to improve the reporting of cases';  rather, to prevent people from knowing the virus' true extent.

 CHINA STRENGTHENS POWER IN ALL SPHERES

 • Wuhan was subject to a brutal lockdown with people barricaded inside their homes;  extended surveillance has been seen in Xinjiang, where the Uighur and Turkic Muslims were persecuted.  

• It also violated the 1997 treaty promising greater autonomy to Hong Kong by sending in troops in May, enacting a national security law and ensuring a brutal crackdown on dissent.

 • The country strengthened activity at the India border, the South China Sea, and the Indian Ocean;  a play to amass power while other nations remain distracted.


 PUTIN'S CRACKDOWN IN RUSSIA

 • President Putin approved a 'sovereign' Russian internet to be firewalled from the rest of the world;  it includes surveillance through facial recognition, fining lockdown violators.  

• The government shall geolocate data from the mobile providers of specific persons in order to track 'coronavirus carriers';  the two may be ways to enhance surveillance, violating privacy even outside the lockdown.  

• Russia earlier banned protests in groups with its lockdown, but has even banned single-person protests which do not violate distancing norms.

FREEDOM NECESSARY EVIL OR ABUSE OF POWER EAR

 • Countries have indeed used the pandemic to strengthen surveillance and take greater power into their hands;  However, this could be necessary in efficiently tackling such a problem in future crises. 

• Unfortunately, in practice, these will likely be used to prop-up supporters of the ruling government and silence the opposition not as a means to fight catastrophe;  even today, several measures go beyond what is required and have nothing to do with COVID-19.

 • The pandemic is temporary, hopefully, but the powers are not.

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH 66 

The health crisis will inevitably subside, but
 autocratic HUMAN governments' dangerous expansion of power may be one of the pandemic's most enduring legacies. 

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Thursday, 25 June 2020

Corona Virus( COVID-19) Top Vaccine Candidates

Corona Virus( COVID-19) Top Vaccine Candidates


Ever since COVID-19 outbreak, laboratories around the world have been busy creating vaccines and undergoing trials.

Several companies and governments doubled their efforts to find a permanent cure.

Apart from individual progression, world leaders and organizations, excluding the United States pledged $ 8 billion to research, manufacture and distribute a vaccine and treatment for the virus. 

Vaccine


 Here are some of the top vaccine candidates

Ad5nCoV Vaccine 

• Adenovirus Type 5 Vector, an advanced DNA vaccine is named as the top contender for COVID-19 by the WHO.

• It's developed by using both Chinese and Canadian technology and is Co-developed by the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology Biologics Inc. (BIB) and CanSino Genetically engineered defective adenovirus type 5 vector was replication used to express the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein which  is grown using living cells.

 Remdesivir Vaccine 

• Dr. Anthony Fauci of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) said that the trial for Remdesivir produced a 'clear cut positive effect in diminishing time to recover.

• Vaccinated people had recovered from COVID-19 in just 11 days compared to the control group that took 15 days.

• Remdesivir has shown promising results in the treatment of other coronavirus diseases such as SARS and MERS.

AZD1222 VACCINE 

• This vaccine is being developed by Oxford University and supported by the British Pharma company, Astrazeneca.

• The company stated that it would roll out up to 2 billion doses in September.

• The vaccine uses a replication-deficient chimpanzee viral vector based on a weakened version of a common cold (adenovirus) virus that causes infections in chimpanzees.  It has been modified to work on humans and contains the genetic material of SARS-COV-2 spike protein.

 • The vaccine has already progressed into phase II / III trials involving 10,000 people from the UK.  

MRNA-1273 Vaccine 

• This experimental vaccine is created by one of the leading US companies, Moderna Inc.

• The vaccine has received approval from the FDA to proceed with the phase II clinical trial.

• The phase II trial will evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of two MRNA-1273 vaccinations.

 Inovio's Vaccine 

• Before the outbreak, the company was in the process of creating a DNA vaccine for MERS.  Resultantly, developed a potential vaccine for SARS- the company swiftly CoV-2.

• The vaccine (INO-4800) targets the Spike protein, a surface antigen that causes COVID-19.

• Phase II / II clinical trials will take place this summer.
• Sanofi is developing COVID-19 vaccine with GlaxoSmithKline and Translate Bio.

• GSK's proprietary adjuvants are being used, which is a compound that boosts immune response, allowing less vaccine to be used for each person.

• Sanofi predicts to get approved by the FDA soon and states that Phase III trial for the vaccine could begin in December or January, 2021.

• Sanofi and Translate Bio have multiple MRNA vaccine candidates against COVID-19 in preclinical testing and will start a first human trial in the fourth quarter of this year.

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